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Turgopower Turbine System, 1kW to 5kW, Model TSS-1000

Item No:
0.00 LBS

Model TSS-1000 Turgo turbine operates from 30 ft (10m) net head and flows up to 5 cfs (150L/S) generating up to 30 kW on a direct drive Turgo Turbine. The key to this range is that the size of the individual buckets, number of buckets on the runner, pitch diameter of the runner can be varied with hundreds of combinations so that the TSS-1000 is specifically built to meet the head, flow and generator speed (rpm) requirements for each hydropower site. This allows consistently high efficiencies of around 75% water to wire for systems under 10kW. Higher efficiencies up to 85% are possible on larger turbines. The actual efficiency depends on the size of the runner, number and size of jets and speed and efficiency of the generator. Induction generators with 6, 8 and 10 poles coupled with 3, 4 and up to 6 jets mean that the TSS-1100 can operate with lower heads and higher flows than most manufacturers of Turgo turbines. Belt Drive or geared transmissions are still often the best options for the specific site conditions and economics. Rickly Hydro engineers specialize in designing the optimum system for your particular Hydro Power site.

The TSS-1000 is an impulse type turbine; water does not change pressure as it moves through the turbine blades. The water's potential energy is converted to kinetic energy with a nozzle. The high speed water jet is then directed on the turbine blades which deflect and reverse the flow. The resulting impulse spins the turbine runner, imparting energy to the turbine shaft. Water exits with very little energy. Turgo runners are extremely efficient.

A Turgo runner looks like a Pelton runner split in half. For the same power, the Turgo runner is one half the diameters of the Pelton runner, and so twice the specific speed. The Turgo can handle a greater water flow than the Pelton because exiting water doesn't interfere with adjacent buckets.

The specific speed of Turgo runners is between the Francis and Pelton. Single or multiple nozzles can be used. Increasing the number of jets increases the specific speed of the runner by the square root of the number of jets (four jets yield twice the specific speed of one jet on the same turbine).

The Turgo has some advantages over Francis and Pelton designs for certain applications.  First, the runner is less expensive to make than a Pelton wheel. Second, it doesn't need an airtight housing like the Francis. Third, it has higher specific speed and can handle a greater flow than the same diameter Pelton wheel, leading to reduced generator size and installation cost.  Turgos's operate in a head range where the Francis and Pelton overlap. While many large Turgo installations exist, they are also popular for small hydro where low cost is very important.

The TSS-1000 is mounted on a fabricated steel frame that is mounted above the rated tail water level.  The runner, shaft and mechanical parts are made of 300 series stainless steel and the turbine casing, inlet flow tube/pipe and structural frame are made from A-36 structural grade steel and are both galvanized, zinc or industrial grade enamel painted. The welded plate structural steel fabrication design we use for the turbine casing is much stronger and has a longer life than cast iron housings that could be used.

The bearing housings are machined from solid stock and are double sealed to ensure the turbine case remains water tight and the stainless steel bearings are sealed and permanently lubricated for long life. This double seal also protects the bearing from any water inflow.

The transmission between turbine and generator can use a v-belt, cogged belt, gear box or direct drive depending on the required rpm of turbine/generator requirement. This is also dependant on the 50/60 Hz, site voltage requirement and off grid or grid connected configurations.

Rickly Hydro manufactures custom spear valve jets for Turgo turbines. The nozzle diameter is designed based on specific site flow conditions and turbine/generator speed requirements. Spear valves can be operated with manual micrometer control or electrical DC actuators tied into the automated turbine control.   Turbine overspeed and speed load control can be accomplished with optional jet deflectors that can be designed based on system size and dynamics.  Other components with the TSS-1000 water to wire system include:

  • Generator soft start for reliable grid synchronization.
  • Power factor correction.
  • Touch Screen control.
  • On-Line real-time alerts of system under-performance and outage.
  • Power back-up and automated restart in case of grid outage.